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Prominent Military Figures

The following individuals are historically significant primarily for their military leadership and service. However, this is not an exhaustive list. Those profiled in other categories of Notable Graves (click on the links at left) also served honorably in the U.S. armed forces, or were the spouses or children of service members. They are listed in other categories because of their historical significance in those areas. 

Medal of Honor recipients are indicated below with an asterisk.* Two-time Medal of Honor recipients are indicated with two asterisks.**

See also: 

Gravestone of 19th-century military leader and explorer Adolphus Greely

Section 1

Lt. Col. Alexander T. Augusta, U.S. Army (1825–1890) — Augusta was a pioneering doctor and the highest-ranking African American officer of the Civil War, promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel in 1865. He was also the Army's first black physician, the United States' first black hospital administrator (Freedman's Hospital, Washington, D.C.) and its first black professor of medicine (Howard University). Commissioned as a major, he served as regimental surgeon of the 7th Infantry, U.S. Colored Troops. After the war, Dr. Augusta was a founding faculty member of the Howard University Medical Department. (124-C)

**Maj. Louis Cukela, U.S. Marine Corps (1888–1956) — Born in Croatia, Cukela emigrated to the United States in 1913 and enlisted in the Army a year later. He joined the Marine Corps in 1917. One of only 19 two-time Medal of Honor recipients, Cukela was awarded both the Navy and Army Medals of Honor for extraordinary heroism in France during World War I. (427-A)

Capt. Edward P. Doherty, U.S. Army (1840–1897) — An officer in the 16th New York Cavalry, this Irish-American Civil War veteran pursued and captured John Wilkes Booth, President Abraham Lincoln's assassin, in late April 1865. (690)

Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday, U.S. Army (1819–1893) — Contrary to popular myth, Doubleday did not invent baseball, but he did fire the Union's first cannon shot in the Civil War. A West Point graduate, he fought in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and in conflicts with American Indians during the 1850s. By 1861, he had become second-in-command of the U.S. Army's garrison at Fort Sumter, South Carolina — which secessionist forces attacked on the morning of April 12, 1861, thus beginning the Civil War. Doubleday commanded troops in the Second Battle of Bull Run, Antietam and Gettysburg. (61)

*Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, U.S. Army (1844–1935) — Greely was a career Army officer and Arctic explorer. During the Civil War, he commanded the 81st Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. He spent most of his Army career with the Signal Corps, supervising the construction of telegraph lines, conducting meteorological research and helping to establish the Weather Bureau. From 1881 to 1884, Greely led an expedition to the Arctic Circle, and survived two Arctic winters without being resupplied. After retiring, he co-founded the National Geographic Society. On March 27, 1935, his 91st birthday, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. (129)

Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee, U.S. Army (1864–1940) — McGee received her medical degree from Columbian College (now George Washington University) in 1892. Her organizing ability led to her appointment, during the Spanish-American War of 1898, as the only woman acting assistant surgeon in the Army, placed in charge of the Army's nurses. She strongly advocated a permanent nursing corps, and in 1901 Congress authorized the creation of the Army Nurse Corps. Dr. McGee also led efforts to erect the Spanish-American War Nurses Monument at Arlington National Cemetery, dedicated in 1905. (526B)

Maj. Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, U.S. Army (1816–1892) — As quartermaster general of the Army during the Civil War, Meigs directed the establishment of Arlington National Cemetery. A West Point graduate, he served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, supervising several important prewar projects in Washington, D.C. — including the Washington Aqueduct and the construction of the wings and dome of the U.S. Capitol. In May 1861, shortly after the Civil War began, Meigs was appointed to quartermaster general, charged with managing Army logistics. In this capacity, he oversaw military burials, and in May 1864 he designated part of Robert E. Lee and Mary Custis Lee's former estate, now occupied by Union troops, as an Army cemetery. His wife, Louisa Meigs, was the first person to be buried, in 1879, in the family's plot off of Meigs Drive; Montgomery Meigs joined her in January 1892, following a full military honors funeral at the cemetery he had helped to create. (1-EH)  

*Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright, U.S. Army (1883–1953) — When the Philippines fell to Japan on April 9, 1942, Wainwright — senior commander of U.S. forces there — and thousands of others escaped to the island of Corregidor, where they hid for a month. Facing the prospect of a Japanese attack, and running out of food and other supplies, Wainwright reluctantly surrendered the island to the Japanese on May 6, 1942. He and the remaining others were forced to endure the Bataan Death March to Japanese prison camps. More than three years later, in August 1945, Wainwright was released from a liberated prisoner-of-war camp; he had been Japan's highest-ranking American prisoner. Called "The Hero of Bataan and Corregidor," he received a Medal of Honor for his efforts to defend his men. (358)

Monument at the gravesite of Civil War General Philip Sheridan

Section 2

*Rear Adm. Richard Byrd, U.S. Navy  (1888–1957) — An Arctic explorer and naval aviator, Byrd was the first person to fly over both poles of the Earth, reaching the North Pole in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929. He and pilot Floyd Bennett (Section 3, Grave 1852) each received a Medal of Honor for their North Pole flight. Congress promoted Byrd to rear admiral (retired) after his South Pole expedition. Byrd continued exploring Antarctica throughout his life; he was 67 years old at the time of his last expedition, in 1955. (4969)

Gen. Claire L. Chennault, U.S. Air Force (1893–1958) — Claire Chennault earned his wings during World War I and went to China in 1937, shortly after the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, to help train the Chinese Air Force. In 1940, he organized a group of volunteer American aviators, known as the "Flying Tigers," to assist the Chinese Air Force against the Japanese. The Flying Tigers were incorporated into the 14th Air Force after the United States entered the war. Chennault also played a leading role in developing civil air transport in China. (873-3-4)

Maj. Gen. John L. Clem, U.S. Army (1851–1937) — In May 1861, when President Abraham Lincoln called for volunteers to join the Union Army, 10-year-old Johnny Clem tried to enlist in an Ohio regiment. He was turned away as too young, but he had better luck in Michigan, where the 22nd Infantry Regiment accepted him as a drummer boy. He officially enlisted in 1863, at 12 years old. During the Battle of Chickamauga, he shot a Confederate officer who was ridiculing his diminutive stature. Promoted to sergeant, the "Drummer Boy of Chickamauga" became the youngest soldier ever to become a noncommissioned officer in the U.S. Army. When he retired on the eve of U.S. entry into World War I, at the rank of major general, Clem was the last Civil War veteran actively serving in the Army. (933)

Maj. Gen. George Crook, U.S. Army (1830–1890) — A career Army officer who fought in the Civil War and the Indian Wars of the 1870s and 1880s. In his last campaign, Crook persistently but unsuccessfully pursued the Apache leader Geronimo. Sometimes described as the greatest "Indian fighter" of the era, Crook also advocated on behalf of American Indians, calling for the U.S. government to uphold its promises to them. (974)

Gen. Benjamin O. Davis Sr., U.S. Army (1877–1970) — The first African American general in the U.S. military, Benjamin O. Davis volunteered in the Spanish-American War (1898) and then enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army's 9th Cavalry Regiment. He served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War in 1901-1902, and then as a military attache in Liberia — postings which ensured that Davis would not command white troops. Still, Davis rose through the ranks to become a lieutenant colonel in 1920 and a colonel in 1930, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted him to brigadier general in 1940. (E-478-B) 

Gen. Benjamin O. Davis Jr., U.S. Air Force (1912–2002) — The son of Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis Sr., Benjamin O. Davis Jr. was the first black general in the U.S. Air Force. During World War II, he commanded the 99th Pursuit Squadron — the first all-black American air unit, which flew tactical support missions in the Mediterranean theater — and the 332nd Fighter Group, more famously known as the Tuskegee Airmen. Davis commanded a fighter wing in the Korean War and subsequently held major peacetime command posts in Asia, Europe and the United States. He advanced to four-star rank in 1998. (E-311)

*Maj. Gen. William J. Donovan, U.S. Army (1883–1959) — From 1942 to 1945, William “Wild Bill” Donovan was the founding director of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. Donovan was the first person in history to earn the United States' four highest awards: the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal and the National Security Medal. He received the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism in action at Landres-et-St. Georges, France during World War I. (4874)

Adm. William Halsey Jr., U.S. Navy (1882–1959) — Admiral William "Bull" Halsey, one of the most important naval commanders of World War II, was promoted to fleet admiral (five-star) in December 1945. A Naval Academy graduate and decorated veteran of World War I, he was a leading proponent of carrier-based air and naval warfare. During World War II, Halsey commanded U.S. Navy forces in the South Pacific in 1942-1943, and in 1944 he assumed command of the Third Fleet — which played a decisive role in Japan's defeat. Adm. Halsey's flagship, the USS Enterprise, was the first carrier to be honored with the Presidential Unit Citation. Halsey's many individual awards included the Navy Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal with three Gold Stars and the Army Distinguished Service Medal. (1184)

Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James, U.S. Air Force (1920–1978) — The first African American four-star officer in the armed forces, Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. was a decorated fighter pilot who earned his Army Air Corps wings in 1943 at Tuskegee Army Airfield, where he trained pilots for the all-black 99th Pursuit Squadron during World War II. He flew 101 combat missions in Korea and 78 combat missions in Vietnam — including a flight in "Operation Bolo" on January 2, 1967, which destroyed seven Communist MiGs, the highest total kill of any mission during the Vietnam War. James was promoted to the four-star rank of general in 1975, and assigned as commander-in-chief of NORAD/ADCOM at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado. (4968)

Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny, U.S. Army (1815–1862) —  During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and the Civil War (1861-1865), Kearny's fearless character in battle earned him the nickname "Kearny the Magnificent." In the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), Kearny led a daring cavalry charge at the Battle of Churubusco and suffered a wound to his left arm, which was later amputated. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Kearny returned to the Army in spite of his disability. He was killed in action on September 1, 1862, at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Kearny was originally buried at Trinity Church in his native New York, but in 1911 his remains were re-interred at Arlington. The bronze equestrian statue commemorates Kearny's lifelong association with cavalry troops. Sculptor Edward Clark Potter, best known for the marble lions in front of the New York Public Library, designed the monument. It is one of two equestrian statues in the cemetery; the other honors Sir John Dill (see Section 32, below.) (S-8)

Adm. William Leahy, U.S. Navy (1875–1959) — Leahy was one of two admirals promoted to fleet admiral (five-star) in December 1944. He served in the Spanish-American War and World War I, and as chief of naval operations from 1937 to 1939, he oversaw the Navy's return to preparedness during the lead-up to World War II. He also served as governor of Puerto Rico, U.S. ambassador to France and chief of staff to Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman. (932)

Capt. Charles Pierre L'Enfant, Continental Army (1754–1825) — Architect and city planner who designed the plan for Washington, D.C. Born in France, L'Enfant came to America to fight for the revolution, and the Continental Congress commissioned him as a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. He was wounded and captured as a prisoner of war, and he later served on George Washington's staff. However, in spite of his war record and his subsequent renown as a city planner, L'Enfant died in poverty on a Maryland farm, and was originally buried there in an unremarkable grave. In 1909, Congress ordered L'Enfant's remains to be disinterred and brought to Washington, D.C., and they lay in state in the U.S. Capitol before reinterment at Arlington in an elaborate ceremony. The marble monument, erected in 1911, features an engraving of L'Enfant's plan for the nation's capital. (S-3)

*Lt. Gen. Arthur MacArthur, U.S. Army (1845–1912) — After the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), President William McKinley appointed MacArthur as military governor of the occupied Philippines. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Chattanooga Campaign (1863) of the Civil War. He was the father of Douglas MacArthur, the five-star general and World War II hero. (856)

Rear Adm. Winfield S. Schley, U.S. Navy (1839–1911) — During the Spanish-American War, Schley commanded one of the squadrons in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba (July 1898), in which the United States decisively defeated the Spanish fleet. (1207)

*Lt. Gen. John Schofield, U.S. Army (1831–1906) — A leading Union general in the Civil War, John Schofield also served as Secretary of War under Presidents Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant. He received the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism while leading a regiment in a successful charge at Wilson's Creek, Missouri on August 10, 1861. (1108)

Gen. Philip H. SheridanU.S. Army (1831–1888) — The namesake of Sheridan Drive and Sheridan Gate at Arlington National Cemetery, this Civil War general was most famous for his destructive Shenandoah Valley campaign in 1864, a major Union victory and turning point in the war. Sheridan became commanding general of the Army in 1883 and general of the Army of the United States (the nation's highest military rank) on June 1, 1888, about two months prior to his death. Gen. Sheridan received the first full military honors burial ceremony at Arlington, and his funeral helped to elevate the cemetery to national prominence. The monument at his gravesite (pictured, above) is a granite Egyptian-style obelisk — similar to the Washington Monument, also completed in 1888. The cast bronze bas-relief sculpture, featuring a bust of Sheridan, is considered one of the most important works by English sculptor Samuel J. Kitson. (S-1)

Gen. Brehon Burke Somervell, U.S. Army (1892–1955) — Commissioned in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Somervell was a decorated veteran of the Mexican Expedition (1916-1917) and World War I. During World War II, he led the Army Service Forces (ASF), which coordinated the Army's logistical operations — including its involvement in the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government's secret atomic weapons program. Somervell also oversaw the project to design and build the Pentagon. (4946)

*Gen. Alexander Vandegrift, U.S. Marine Corps (1887–1973) — During World War II, Gen. Vandegrift commanded the 1st Marine Division in the Battle of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands, 1942-1943), the Allies' first large-scale offensive, and first victory, in the Pacific Theater. His previous service in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti and China prepared him well for the challenges of jungle warfare. Vandegrift earned the Medal of Honor for his "tenacity, courage and resourcefulness" during the Guadalcanal campaign. He was the first Marine to earn both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross, and the first Marine to hold a four-star rank while on active duty. (4965-B)

Lt. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, U.S. Army (1836–1906) — During conflicts with American Indians in the New Mexico Territory during the 1850s, Joseph Wheeler earned the nickname "Fighting Joe." A native of Georgia, he joined the Confederate Army in 1861 and emerged as one of its leading cavalry commanders. After the Civil War, he served eight terms as a Democratic Congressman from Alabama and, at over 60 years old, fought in the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars (1898-1902). (1089)

Rear Adm. Charles Wilkes, U.S. Navy (1798–1877) — Known for his skill with navigational instruments, Wilkes commanded the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (also known as the Ex. Ex. or Wilkes Expedition), which mapped large portions of the northwest American coast, the Pacific and Antarctica. Wilkes's Civil War service was controversial, resulting in an 1864 court martial; however, the charges were dropped and he was promoted to rear admiral (retired) in 1866. (1164)


The Miles Mausoleum, one of only two such structures at Arlington National Cemetery

Section 3

**Maj. Gen. Frank D. Baldwin, U.S. Army (1842–1923) — Baldwin was a double Medal of Honor recipient for acts of valor performed during the Civil War (on July 20, 1864) and the Indian Wars (on November 8, 1874). At the time, he was the only person to have received the Medal of Honor twice. He also served in the Spanish-American War and was adjutant general of the Colorado National Guard during World War I. (1894)

Maj. Frederick W. Benteen, U.S. Army (1834–1898) — A career military officer who fought in the Civil War and the Indian Wars, Benteen was best known as Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer's third-in-command at the Battle of Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876), in which Cheyenne and Sioux warriors decisively defeated Custer's 7th Cavalry. Benteen survived "Custer's Last Stand," and his role in the defeat, controversial at the time, continues to be debated among historians. (1351)

Lt. Gen. Adna Romanza Chaffee, U.S. Army (1884–1941) — In a long and distinguished military career, Chafee served in the Civil War, the Indian Wars and the Spanish-American War. He commanded the U.S. troops that were sent to China during the Boxer Rebellion (1900-1901), and served as military governor of the Philippines from 1901 to 1902. Promoted to lieutenant general in 1904, he was chief of staff of the U.S. Army until his retirement from active service in 1906. (1945-WS)

Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee Jr., U.S. Army (1842–1914) — Known as the "Father of the U.S. Armored Force," Chaffee was a leading advocate of mechanized warfare who played a key role in the development of the United States' tank forces between the world wars. A West Point graduate from a military family, he served in World War I. (1944)

*Lt. Cmdr. Edouard Izac, U.S. Navy (1891–1990) — During World War I, Izac earned the Medal of Honor for his daring efforts to escape German imprisonment in order to provide intelligence information to the Allies. After his ship, the USS President Lincoln, was attacked and sunk by German submarine U-90 in May 1918, Izac was held aboard the U-boat as a prisoner of war. Izac could understand German — his father had emigrated to the United States from Germany — and, as he overheard U-90 officers talking, he gathered information about the movements of German submarines. Determined to pass this information to his superiors, he attempted to escape twice, succeeding the second time. Izac also served as a member of Congress from 1937 to 1947, and he lived to be 100 years old. (4222-16)

Maj. Jonathan Letterman, U.S. Army (1824–1872) — Surgeon general of the Army of the Potomac during the Civil War, Major Letterman has been called "the father of battlefield medicine." He established the Ambulance Corps and implemented procedures and techniques that are still used today. (1869)

*Maj. Gen. Nelson Appleton Miles, U.S. Army (1839–1925) — Miles enlisted in the Army as a volunteer infantryman in 1861, and rose steadily through the ranks to become commanding general of the Army. During the Civil War, he was wounded four times and received the Medal of Honor for exceptional valor in the Battle of Chancellorsvile. He led campaigns against American Indians in the 1870s and 1880s, and led the invasion of Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War. From 1895 to 1903, Miles served as the last commanding general of the Army, which then adopted a chief of staff system. On May 15, 1920, the 80-year-old retired general was grand marshall at the dedication ceremony for Memorial Amphitheater. He is interred in a large mausoleum (pictured, above), one of only two in the cemetery. (1873)

Brig. Gen. Noel F. Parrish, U.S. Air Force (1907–1987) — Parrish, a career military aviator, was the white commander of the all-black Tuskegee Airmen — the military's first systematic effort to train African American pilots for combat duty during World War II. Under his leadership, 966 African American men completed military pilot training at Alabama's Tuskegee Army Airfield between 1941 and 1946. After the war, Parrish helped advise the Truman administration's desegregation of the armed forces, and he held several Air Force and NATO leadership positions. (1667)

*Brig. Gen. Edmund Rice, U.S. Army (1842–1906) — Rice's gravesite has a unique marker: a large rock featuring a bronze replica of the Medal of Honor. Attaining the rank of brigadier general, Rice served in the Civil War (receiving the Medal of Honor for "exceptional valor" in repelling Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg), the Indian Wars of the 1870s-1880s and the Philippine-American War. He also invented military equipment, holding several patents. (1875)

1st Lt. Thomas Selfridge, U.S. Army (1882–1908) — The first person to die in the crash of a powered airplane, during a demonstration flight with Orville Wright on September 17, 1908, Selfridge made key contributions to the development of aviation. He designed the first powered aircraft for the Aerial Experiment Association (an important research group chaired by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell) and, shortly before his death, made the first dirigible flights for the Army Signal Corps. (2158)

Col. Charles Young, U.S. Army (1864–1922) — Born into slavery, Young was the third African American to graduate from West Point. He served in the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) and subsequently became the first black superintendent of a national park (1903) and the first black officer to attain the rank of colonel (1917). More than 5,000 people attended his memorial service, the fourth service held at the Memorial Amphitheater. (1730-B)

Section 4

Cmdr. Elmer Fowler Stone, U.S. Coast Guard (1887–1936) — The U.S. Coast Guard's first aviator, Stone flew seaplanes for the U.S. Navy during World War I and advocated for the development of Coast Guard aviation. In May 1919, he piloted the first successful flight across the Atlantic Ocean, a 54-hour feat via Nova Scotia and the Azores. (Eight years later, Charles Lindbergh would accomplish the first non-stop transatlantic flight.) During the 1920s and 1930s, Cmdr. Stone tested new types of seaplanes for the Coast Guard and Navy, and in 1934 he set a world speed record for amphibian aircraft. (3205-A)

Gravestone of Admiral Hyman Rickover, father of the nuclear Navy

Section 5

Roscoe Conklin “Rock” Cartwright, U.S. Army (1919–1974) — The first Black graduate of any Army Officer Candidate School to be promoted to brigadier general, Cartwright was drafted into the Army in 1941. He attended Fort Sill Officer Candidate School and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1942. During World War II, he led the 599th Field Artillery Battalion, 92nd Infantry Division—the famed “Buffalo Soldiers”—through combat in Italy. He subsequently served combat tours in Korea and Vietnam. On August 1, 1971, Cartwright became the U.S. Army’s third Black brigadier general. Yet one of his most enduring contributions to the Army occurred off the battlefield. Cartwright founded a social group that provided mentoring and leadership training to African American officers; prominent members included Generals Colin Powell (Section 60) and Roscoe Robinson Jr. (Section 7A). Cartwright retired from the Army in 1974 after over 33 years of service. In December of that year, he and his wife were tragically killed in a plane crash. In Cartwright’s honor, the group he had founded was named “THE ROCKS”; to this day, they continue to mentor officers. Brig. Gen. Cartwright’s many awards include the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star and the Army Commendation Medal. (140)

Gen. Graves Erskine, U.S. Marine Corps (1897–1973) — Noted for his distinguished service in both world wars, Graves Erskine joined the U.S. Marine Corps as a second lieutenant in 1917. During World War I, while serving in France with the Sixth Marine Regiment, he fought in the Battles of Belleau Wood, Soisson and St. Mihiel (sustaining a serious injury in the latter). In 1921, Erskine commanded the honor guard that escorted the body of the Unknown Soldier from France to the United States. When the United States entered World War II, Erskine became the youngest brigadier general in the Marine Corps. In the Pacific theater, he helped plan the Allied invasion of the Gilbert Islands in 1943; participated in the capture of Kwajalein, Saipan and Tinian in 1944; and led the Third Marine Division at the Battle of Iwo Jima in 1945, for which he received the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. Erskine retired from the Marine Corps as a four-star general in 1953. He subsequently held leadership positions at the Department of Defense, specializing in special intelligence operations. (7033)

Adm. Hyman G. Rickover, U.S. Navy (1900–1986) — The "Father of the Nuclear Navy," Rickover led the Navy's Naval Reactors division from 1949 to 1982, overseeing development of the nation's first nuclear submarines. Born in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, Rickover's family emigrated to the United States when he was a child, as Jewish refugees from Russian pogroms. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and served 63 years of active duty. Rickover is one of only four people to have received two Congressional Gold Medals for exceptional public service. (7000)

Lt. John Wingate Weeks, U.S. Navy (1860–1926) — A Naval Academy graduate, Weeks served as a volunteer in the Navy during the Spanish-American War (1898). He made his fortune in banking, as co-founder of the Boston financial firm Hornblower and Weeks. Between 1904 and 1919, he served four terms in the House of Representatives, and one term in the Senate, as a Republican from Massachusetts. He was then secretary of war under Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Reflecting his wealth, Weeks' gravesite has one of the largest and most elaborate private markers in the cemetery. (7064)

Section 6

Lt. Gen. John A. Lejeune, U.S. Marine Corps (1867–1942) — Often described as "the greatest of all Leathernecks," Lt. Gen. Lejeune was the 13th Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps (1920-1929) and the namesake of Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. He served for more than 40 years, and his commands included leading the Army's renowned Second Division in World War I. He and his wife are buried with their daughter, Eugenia Lejeune, who served in the Marine Corps Reserve during World War II. (5682)

Cmdr. Barbara Allen Rainey, U.S. Navy (1948–1982) — The first woman pilot in the Navy, Lt. Cmdr. Rainey was commissioned in 1970. On July 13, 1982, she was killed in an aircraft accident while training another pilot. (5813-A-7)

Gravesite of General George C. Marshall, one of the 20th century's most important military and diplomatic leaders

Section 7

Gen. George C. Marshall, U.S. Army (1880–1959) — One of the most distinguished military and diplomatic leaders of the 20th century, General George C. Marshall served as chief of staff of the U.S. Army during World War II (1939-1945). He directed the largest expansion of the Army in U.S. history, from fewer than 200,000 men before the war to more than eight million, with an unmatched arsenal of modern weapons and equipment. He also shaped American military strategy, advocating an invasion of Nazi-occupied France via the English Channel. On December 16, 1944, Marshall was promoted to General of the Army (five stars), the nation's highest rank. After the war, President Harry Truman appointed him secretary of state (1947-1949) and secretary of defense (1950-1951); he is the only person to have held both positions. Marshall's diplomatic career was as historically significant as his military one. Most notably, he conceived an ambitious, highly successful program for the postwar economic recovery of Western Europe — known as the "Marshall Plan" — for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. (8198)

Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway, U.S. Army (1895–1993) — As commander of the U.S. Eighth Army, Matthew Ridgway launched a successful counteroffensive against Chinese forces in South Korea in late 1950, which was largely credited with salvaging the United Nations’ war effort. Promoted to general in April 1951, Ridgway succeeded General Dwight D. Eisenhower as commander of Allied forces in Asia—a position which placed him in charge of UN strategy for the remainder of the war. He subsequently served as Army chief of staff (1953-1955). During his retirement, he published two books: a memoir titled "Soldier" (1956) and "The Korean War: How We Met the Challenge" (1967). A 1917 graduate of West Point, Ridgway also served with distinction in World War II as commander of the 82nd Airborne Division (parachuting into Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944) and XVIII Airborne Corps. General Ridgeway’s many honors included the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1986) and the Congressional Gold Medal (1991). He died in 1993 at age 98. (8196-1)

Gen. Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith, U.S. Army (1895–1961) — Known affectionately as "Beetle," General Walter Bedell Smith served during World War II as General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s chief of staff, first in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, and then at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in England and France. He played a key role in orchestrating Nazi Germany's surrender to the Allies on May 7, 1945. After the war, Smith held foreign policy leadership positions in the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, serving as U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-1948), director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1950-1953) and as under secretary of state (1953-1954). (8197-A) 

Section 7A

*Col. Gregory "Pappy" Boyington, U.S. Marine Corps (1912–1988) — A World War II fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient, Col. "Pappy" Boyington shot down a total of 28 Japanese aircraft. Initially in Army ROTC, he joined the Marines in 1935. In August 1941, however, he resigned his Marine commission in order to join the Flying Tigers (1st American Volunteer Group), organized by Gen. Claire Chennault to assist the Chinese Air Force. Boyington rejoined the Marines in 1942 and commanded the "Black Sheep" squadron (Marine Fighting Squadron 214) in the South Pacific. On January 3, 1944, he was shot down, captured and then held in a Japanese prison camp for 20 months. Boyington's 1958 memoir, "Baa Baa Black Sheep," inspired the 1970s television series of the same name. (150)

*Gen. James H. "Jimmy" Doolittle, U.S. Army (1896–1993) — Jimmy Doolittle was an aviation pioneer and famed World War II air commander. He earned the Medal of Honor for personal valor and leadership as commander of the Doolittle Raid, a bold long-range retaliatory air raid on the Japanese mainland, on April 18, 1942. Promoted to lieutenant general, he commanded the 12th Air Force over North Africa, the 15th Air Force over the Mediterranean and the 8th Air Force over Europe. Between the world wars, Doolittle was instrumental in the development of American aviation, setting numerous speed records and, in 1922, making the first cross-country flight (for which he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross). He continued these pioneering efforts after the war, advising the development of ballistic missiles and space programs as a special advisor to the Air Force chief of staff. Doolittle also helped organize and served as the first president of the Air Force Association. (110)

Gen. Roscoe Robinson Jr., U.S. Army (1928–1993) — In 1982, Robinson became the first African American in the Army to attain four-star rank, and the second in the military (after Daniel "Chappie" James of the U.S. Air Force). In a 34-year military career that began in 1951, the West Point graduate served in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. He also served as U.S. representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) for the three years preceding his retirement in 1985. (18)

*Gen. David M. Shoup, U.S. Marine Corps (1904–1983) — Gen. Shoup served as the 22nd commandant of the Marine Corps, from 1960 through 1963. During World War II, he received the Medal of Honor as commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops in the Battle of Tarawa (November 20-23, 1943), one of the deadliest Pacific Theater battles. His report from Tarawa stated simply: "Casualties many; Percentage of dead not known; Combat efficiency; we are winning." Later, Shoup became known as a critic of the Vietnam War. (189)

Gen. Maxwell Taylor, U.S. Army (1901–1987) — Gen. Taylor's distinguished World War II service included organizing the Army's first airborne division, the 82nd; conducting a risky secret mission behind enemy lines in Italy; and commanding the 101st Airborne Division and participating in its parachute assault into Normandy before D-Day (June 6, 1944). Toward the end of the Korean War, Taylor was commanding general of the Eighth Army, and in 1954 he assumed command of all UN forces in Korea. He was appointed chief of staff of the Army in 1955, and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1962. A trusted advisor of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, Gen. Taylor played a key role in developing the United States' early strategy in Vietnam, and he briefly served as ambassador to South Vietnam. (20)

*Lt. Col. Matt Urban, U.S. Army (1919–1995) — One of the most-decorated heroes of World War II, Urban served with the 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division in the Mediterranean and Europe. He earned the Medal of Honor for exceptional valor in combat in France during the summer of 1944. After receiving a serious leg wound, Urban was recuperating in a hospital in England when he learned that his unit had suffered significant casualties. He left the hospital and hitchhiked back to the 2nd Battalion command post near St. Lo, France. Under heavy enemy fire, he was wounded three more times in August and early September 1944, each time refusing evacuation until his battalion was secure. Due to a mail mishap, the Army did not receive Urban's Medal of Honor recommendation at the time. In the late 1970s, the Army examined eyewitness accounts and other evidence of Urban's heroic combat actions, and President Jimmy Carter awarded him the Medal of Honor on July 19, 1980. (40)

A large white marble globe marks the gravesite of North Pole explorer Robert Peary

Section 8

**Lt. Cdr. John McCloy, U.S. Navy (1876–1945) — McCloy joined the U.S. Merchant Marine at age 15 and enlisted in the Navy in 1898, serving in the Spanish-American War. He received his first Medal of Honor for meritorious conduct during the China Relief Expedition of June 1900, and he received his second for leading three picket launches against heavy enemy fire during the U.S. occupation of Vera Cruz, Mexico in April 1914. For commanding a minesweeper that cleared the North Sea after World War I, he was awarded the Navy Cross. (5246)

Rear Adm. Robert E. Peary, U.S. Navy (1856–1920) — On April 6, 1922, Robert Peary led the first successful expedition to the North Pole, joined by his colleague Matthew Henson and four Inuit assistants. While in the U.S. Navy Civil Engineering Corps, Peary had made several previous Arctic expeditions, setting a "farthest north" record on a Greenland expedition in 1906. In 1911, Congress promoted Peary to rear admiral. The monument over his grave (pictured, above) features a large, white granite globe, with a bronze star marking the North Pole. (S-15)

Maj. Marie Therese Rossi, U.S. Army (1959–1991) — In the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Maj. Rossi became the first American female combat commander to fly into battle. A helicopter pilot, she commanded a CH-47 Chinook helicopter company deployed to Saudi Arabia. She was killed in a helicopter crash on March 1, 1991, the day after a ceasefire agreement ended Operation Desert Storm. (9872)

Section 12

*Gunnery Sgt. John Basilone, U.S. Marine Corps (1916–1945) — Basilone was awarded the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism in combat at Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, in October 1942. During brutal fighting with heavy casualties on both sides, he killed at least 38 Japanese soldiers. He returned home to a hero's welcome, including a parade featured in "Life" magazine. But he requested to return to combat, stating that he was just "a plain soldier" who belonged with his unit. On February 19, 1945, Basilone was killed in action leading an assault off the beaches of Iwo Jima. He was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross, the only enlisted Marine to be honored with both the Navy Cross and the Medal of Honor. (384)

Pfc. Raito R. Nakashima, U.S. Army (1925–1945) and Staff Sgt. Wataru Nakashima, U.S. Army (1923–1946) — During World War II, Raito Nakashima and his brother, Wataru Nakashima, served with the famed 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Comprised of Japanese-American soldiers, the 442nd is the most-decorated infantry regiment in U.S. military history. Pfc. Raito Nakashima was killed in action and posthumously received a Silver Star, for "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against the enemy" in Italy on April 14, 1945. Despite grevious wounds, he fired at enemy troops attempting to infiltrate his company until he collapsed. Wataru Nakashima also served with the 442nd and was laid to rest next to his brother. (5124 and 5125)

Sgt. Michael Strank, U.S. Marine Corps (1919–1945) — Born in Slovakia, Strank emigrated to Pennsylvania with his parents as a child and enlisted in the Marines in 1939. He is one of six Marines depicted in AP photographer Joe Rosenthal's iconic photograph, "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima," which inspired the Marine Corps War Memorial. Taken on February 23, 1945, the image depicts Strank and others in his unit (Company E, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Division) raising the American flag after capturing Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima. Strank was killed in action one week after the photograph was taken. (7179)

Maj. Gen. Orde Charles Wingate, British Army (1903–1944) — One of the foreign nationals buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Wingate was an intelligence officer and explorer who served in Asian and African regions of the British Empire. In Palestine, he helped to train early Jewish settlers in self-defense; Generals Moshe Dyan and Yigal Allon were two of his prize students, and the Israeli Defense Forces later adopted his unconventional military tactics. In March 1944, Wingate was the leader of British commando units in Burma when, en route to a meeting, the plane on which he was traveling crashed in the Burmese jungle. The commingled remains of the crew and passengers, both British and U.S. citizens, were found and returned to Arlington for burial in 1950. (288) 

Section 13

Capt. Daniel Keys, U.S. Army (d. 1883) — Civil War veteran Capt. Daniel Keys has Arlington National Cemetery's only remaining cast-iron headstone, also known as a "Meigs Marker." The U.S. government originally used wooden markers for military burials, but wood proved costly to replace. Two alternatives were chosen: marble and galvanized iron coated with zinc, although marble soon became the standard. The iron headstones were known as "Meigs Markers" after Army Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs, who was in charge of Arlington when it became a national cemetery. (13615) 

McCullough brothers, U.S. Army — Suggesting the impact of the Civil War on individual families, this grave contains four brothers who fought in the Civil War, all as privates in the 100th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry: Jacob McCullough (1838–1864), Joseph McCullough (1847–1864), John McCullough (1842–1869) and Nathaniel McCullough (1844–1908). Jacob and Joseph died during the war, the other two brothers after. (13724)

Cpl. Frank S. Scott, U.S. Army (1883–1912) — In a tragic milestone of aviation history, Cpl. Frank Scott was American military aviation's first enlisted casualty. Scott had trained as an airplane mechanic at the Army Signal Corps' Aviation School at College Park Flying Field, Maryland. On September 28, 1912, he was the passenger of a student pilot at the school. Their Wright Model B airplane developed engine trouble and crashed, killing both aboard. Cpl. Scott is the namesake of Illinois' Scott Air Force Base. (5331-S)

*Capt. Humbert Roque Versace, U.S. Army (1937–1965) — A Vietnam War POW, Captain Humbert Roque "Rocky" Versace received the first Medal of Honor for actions performed in Southeast Asia while in captivity. After graduating from West Point in 1959, Versace volunteered to go to Vietnam as an intelligence advisor. On October 29, 1963, he was wounded and captured during a Viet Cong ambush. Capt. Versace tried to escape four times, and his captors ultimately chained him in an isolation cell. Still, he tried to boost fellow prisoners' morale by singing popular songs; he was last heard loudly singing "God Bless America." On September 26, 1965, North Vietnamese radio announced that he had been executed. In July 2002, President George W. Bush awarded him a posthumous Medal of Honor. (Memorial Section, Site 108) 

Section 18

Sgt. Edward F. Younger, U.S. Army (1898–1942) — This World War I veteran and Purple Heart recipient selected the World War I Unknown Soldier. Sgt. Younger enlisted in the Army in early 1917 and served in major combat engagements, including Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, the Somme offensive and the Meuse-Argonne offensive; he was wounded twice. While stationed in Germany during the postwar occupation, Younger received the honor of serving as one of six pallbearers to attend the selection of the Unknown Soldier in France. Originally, instructions called for a commissioned officer to make the selection. At the last minute, however, the Army quartermaster general learned that the French had delegated this honor to an enlisted man when they chose their Unknown Soldier in 1920. He consequently authorized this duty to be given to one of the enlisted men participating in the ceremony. Major Robert P. Harbold, the officer in charge, chose Younger. Inside the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Chalons-sur-Marne, France, four American unknowns — who had previously been buried in American military cemeteries in France — lay in identical caskets. On October 24, 1921, Younger was instructed to place a spray of white roses on one of the caskets. The casket that he selected was then transported to Arlington and buried at the newly constructed Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on November 11, 1921. (1918-B)  

**Cpl. John Pruitt, U.S. Marine Corps (1896–1918) — During World War I, this Marine posthumously received both the Army Medal of Honor and the Navy Medal of Honor for "extraordinary heroism" in action at Blanc Mont Ridge, France, on October 3, 1918. According to the Medal of Honor citation, Cpl. Pruitt "singlehandedly attacked two machine guns, capturing them and killing two of the enemy. He then captured 40 prisoners in a dugout nearby." He was killed by shellfire the next day, his 22nd birthday. Pruitt's other medals included two Purple Hearts, four Silver Stars and four Bronze Stars. (2453)

Gravestone of Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, who led American global expansion in the late 19th century

Section 21

Gen. Creighton Williams Abrams Jr., U.S. Army (1914–1974) —  Gen. Creighton Abrams commanded all U.S. forces in Vietnam during the latter years of the Vietnam War (1968-1972), implementing President Richard M. Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization" and gradual U.S. withdrawal. He then served as Army chief of staff until his death from cancer on September 4, 1974. Abrams was a legendary tank commander in World War II, leading the 37th Tank Battalion in the 4th Armored Division of General George Patton's Third Army. In 1980, he became the namesake of the M-1 Abrams tank, but during World War II he operated an M4 Sherman tank named "Thunderbolt" — the name emblazoned on its side. (S-33) 

Gen. George Scratchley Brown, U.S. Air Force (1918–1978) — A highly decorated World War II hero, Gen. George Scratchley Brown was appointed chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force (August 1973-June 1974) and then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (July 1974 until his retirement in 1978). During World War II, he flew B-24s with the 93rd Bombardment Group, earning the Distinguished Service Cross for his role in the low-level bombing of oil refineries in Ploesti, Romania in 1943. Brown held major air commands in the Korean War, and during the Vietnam War, as commander of the Seventh Air Force, effectively oversaw the United States' air operations in Southeast Asia. (S-24)

Rear Adm. William T. Sampson, U.S. Navy (1840–1902) — As commander of the North Atlantic Squadron during the Spanish-American War (1898), Sampson implemented the naval strategy that enabled the United States to achieve victory over Spain. However, he was absent (away conferring with the commander of U.S. land forces) during the decisive Battle of Santiago de Cuba, in which the Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet — prompting a controversy over whether Sampson or Adm. Winfield S. Schley (buried in Section 2; see above), who was in command during that battle, should receive credit for the victory. Sampson also served as president of the U.S.S. Maine court of inquiry, which investigated the explosion of the Maine in Havana Harbor. (S-9)

*Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, U.S. Army (1860–1927) — Wood played a key role in shaping American global expansion and military preparedness in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A Harvard Medical School graduate, he began his Army career as a medical officer on the southwestern frontier, receiving the Medal of Honor in 1886 for his role in the campaign against Geronimo and the Apaches. During the Spanish-American War (1898), Wood and his friend Theodore Roosevelt, then assistant secretary of the Navy, organized and commanded the famous "Rough Riders" (1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment). After the war, Wood became military general of Cuba (1899-1902). He served in the Philippines as governor of Moro Province (1903-1906) and as commander of the Army's Department of the East (1906-1908), amidst ongoing rebellions by Filipino nationalists. President William H. Taft appointed Wood chief of staff of the Army in 1910. His last appointment, after he ran unsuccessfully for the 1920 Republican presidential nomination, was governor general of the Philippines (1921-1927). (S-10)

Section 25

*Sgt. Henry Johnson, U.S. Army (1892–1929) — During World War I, Sgt. Henry Johnson served in France with the U.S. Army's 369th Infantry Regiment, an all-African American unit nicknamed the "Harlem Hellfighters." He was the first American soldier to earn France's highest military honor,  the Croix de Guerre, for his actions in combat in the Argonne Forest. In the early morning hours of May 15, 1918, Johnson and Pvt. Neadom Roberts were on sentry duty when a squad of Germans began firing at them. Both were severely wounded, and Johnson continued fighting even after taking bullets in the arm, head and side, and suffering 21 wounds in hand-to-hand combat. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Service Cross. (64)

Section 26

Capt. Albert H. Packard, U.S. Army (d. May 15, 1864) — Buried four days after Pvt. Henry Christman (see below), Packard was the first officer to be buried at Arlington. A captain of the 31st Maine Infantry, he was severely wounded during the Civil War Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-7, 1864) and died 10 days later at a Washington, D.C. hospital. (5203)

Section 27

Pvt. William B. Blatt, U.S. Army (d. May 13, 1864) — The first combat casualty buried at Arlington, Blatt was wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness and died en route to a hospital. He fought in the Civil War as a private in the 49th Pennsylvania Infantry. (18)

Pvt. William Henry Christman, U.S. Army (d. May 11, 1864) — On May 13, 1864, Private William Henry Christman, of the 67th Pennsylvania Infantry, became the first service member to be buried in what would become Arlington National Cemetery. Like many Civil War casualties, the 21-year-old soldier died from disease — measles — rather than from combat wounds. And, like many enlisted service members who would be laid to rest at the new military cemetery, Christman came from a poor family. According to his descendents, who attended a ceremony on the 150th anniversary of his burial, Christman enlisted in the Union Army after his brother Barnabas was killed in battle. (19)

Pvt. William Reeves, U.S. Army (d. May 13, 1864) — Private William Reeves, of the 76th New York Infantry, was the first draftee buried at Arlington. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Enrollment Act on March 3, 1863, authorizing a draft for all male U.S. citizens ages 20 through 45. (99)

Gravestone of General Omar Bradley, the last five-star general in the U.S. military

Section 30

Gen. Omar N. Bradley, U.S. Army (1883–1981) — The last general to attain five-star rank, Gen. Omar Bradley was promoted to General of the Army on September 22, 1950. A West Point graduate, he began World War II with no combat experience; during World War I, he had been assigned to guard copper mines in Montana. By the end of the war, however, Gen. Bradley commanded 43 divisions and 1.3 million men — the largest body of soldiers to serve under a U.S. field commander — and, as senior commander of American ground forces in the 1944 invasion of France, had played a leading role in Allied victory in Europe. Appointed Army chief of staff in 1948, he became the first chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, serving in that position from 1949 to 1953 — thus overseeing U.S. strategy in the Korean War and the early Cold War. Nicknamed "the GI's General," Bradley was known for his modesty and his solicitude toward his troops. (428-1-2)

Adm. Louis E. Denfeld, U.S. Navy (1891–1972) — As chief of naval operations from 1947 to 1949, Adm. Denfield advocated for the continuing importance of sea power in national defense. The secretary of the Navy requested Denfield's resignation after he took a strong stand in favor of naval aviation during 1949 Congressional hearings, contradicting the Defense Department's emphasis on strategic nuclear bombing executed by the Air Force. Denfeld was a World War II veteran who had commanded a destroyer division in the Pacific, and in 1947 he was named commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. (433) 

Lt. James V. Forrestal, U.S. Navy (1892–1949) — The United States' first secretary of defense, Forrestal served in that position from 1947 to 1949 — following the National Security Act of 1947, which unified the U.S. armed forces under the newly-created Department of Defense. In addition to guiding the military through this bureaucratic reorganization, Forrestal helped to formulate early Cold War defense policy. The former investment banker had proven himself to be a skilled military administrator during World War II: as undersecretary and then secretary of the Navy, he organized the Navy's massive wartime expansion and procurement programs. The inscription on his headstone reads: "In the great cause of good government." (674)

Capt. Michael D. Groves, U.S. Army (1936–1963) — Groves commanded Honor Guard Company (Company E) of the 3rd U.S. Infantry (the "Old Guard") during the funeral of President John F. Kennedy on November 25, 1963. He was responsible for the training and supervision of the body bearers, rifle firing party and caisson escort. One week after the funeral, Groves suffered a fatal heart attack at the age of 27. (897)

Gen. Alexander M. Haig Jr., U.S. Army (1924–2010) — Alexander M. Haig served as President Ronald Reagan's first secretary of state, as chief of staff under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, and as President Nixon's deputy national security advisor. One of Nixon's most influential advisors, Haig has been described as a kind of "acting president" who held the White House together during the final months of Watergate. He ultimately played a key role in persuading Nixon to resign. In addition to these civilian leadership positions, Haig had a distinguished military career: a decorated veteran of the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he served as supreme allied commander of NATO forces from 1974 to 1979, and retired from active Army service in 1979 as a four-star general. Grave 418-LH)

Capt. Joy Bright Hancock, U.S. Navy (1898–1986) — Commissioned as a lieutenant in the Navy's Women's Reserve (commonly known as WAVES, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) in 1942, Capt. Joy Bright Hancock became one of the first women to be sworn into the regular Navy following the Women’s Armed Service Integration Act of 1948. She served in both world wars and became the director of the WAVES in 1946. When she retired from active duty in 1953, she received the Legion of Merit for her contributions to the WAVES. The following year, she married Vice Admiral Ralph A. Ofstie (with whom she is buried) and accompanied him on his 1955-'56 tour as commander of the Sixth Fleet. She published her autobiography, "Lady in the Navy," in 1972. (2138-RH)

Maj. Gen. Marcelite Jordan Harris, U.S. Air Force (1943–2018) — Maj. Gen. Marcelite Jordan Harris retired in 1997 as the highest-ranking female officer in the Air Force and the highest ranking African American woman in the Department of Defense. A graduate of Spelman Academy, she was commissioned in 1965, rising through the ranks to become, in 1991, the first African American female brigadier general in the Air Force. Many of her assignments represented "firsts" for women in the Air Force. Her medals include the Bronze Star and the Legion of Merit. (621) 

Gen. Harold K. Johnson, U.S. Army (1912–1983) — General Harold Johnson served as Army chief of staff from 1964 to 1968, at the height of the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War. During World War II, as a battalion commander with the 57th Infantry Regiment (the Philippine Scouts), Johnson survived the Bataan Death March and 41 months in brutal conditions as a prisoner of war. He received the Distinguished Service Cross for his service in the Korean War. From 1960 to 1963, he was commandant of the U.S. Army Command & General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth. (430-2)

Adm. Arthur W. Radford, U.S. Navy (1896–1973) — Admiral Arthur Radford was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1953 to 1957. He had previously served as commander-in-chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet during the Korean War, and as an aircraft carrier division commander in the Pacific during World War II. A naval aviator, Radford advocated naval air power and the strong anti-communist deterrence policies of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. (435)

Adm. Harold R. Stark, U.S. Navy (1880–1972) — Admiral Harold Stark served as chief of naval operations from August 1939 to March 1942, overseeing the Navy's expansion and early mobilization for World War II. From 1943 to 1945, he commanded U.S. Naval Forces, Europe and the Twelfth Fleet including all U.S. naval forces assigned to British waters and to the Atlantic coastal waters of Europe. For leading the U.S. Navy's involvement in the liberation of Europe, Stark received the Distinguished Service Medal. (433)

Gen. John Shalikashvili, U.S. Army (1936–2011) — Born in Warsaw, Poland, Shalikashvili was the first foreign-born soldier to become chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He lived through the World War II German occupation of Poland and emigrated to the United States with his family in 1952, at the age of 16. Drafted into the Army in 1958, "Shali" rose steadily through the ranks, serving in the Vietnam War. After the Persian Gulf War (1991), he commanded the multilateral campaign to provide humanitarian relief to Kurdish refugees in Iraq. In 1992, Shalikashvili became supreme commander of NATO forces in Europe, and the following year President Bill Clinton appointed him as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In both roles, he led efforts to maintain peace and security in post-Cold War Europe. Shalikashvili has been described as the "intellectual godfather" of the Partnership for Peace, NATO's program of cooperation with former Warsaw Pact countries. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom after his retirement from the military in 1997. (832-2)

Gen. Charles P. Summerall, U.S. Army (1867–1955) — Gen. Summerall, Army chief of staff from 1926 to 1930, was a veteran of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, the China Relief Expedition (Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901) and World War I. He received the Distinguished Service Cross for commanding the 1st Division in France during World War I. After retiring from active service in 1931, Summerall served as president of The Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, for 22 years. The inscription on his headstone reads: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith." (S-16) 

Gen. Nathan Farragut Twining, U.S. Air Force (1897–1982) — In 1957, Twining became the first Air Force general to be appointed chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. As chief of staff of the Air Force (1953-1957) and as chairman of the Joint Chiefs (1957-1960), he implemented President Dwight D. Eisenhower's doctrine of "massive retaliation" — a Cold War strategy based on air power and nuclear strike capability. A career officer, he grew up in a Navy family (his middle name honored U.S. Navy Admiral David Farragut) and attended West Point only after failing the Naval Academy entrance examination. During World War II, he commanded the 20th Air Force in the Pacific, which carried out the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in August 1945. (434-2)

Gen. Earle G. Wheeler, U.S. Army (1908–1975) — As Army chief of staff from 1962 to 1964, and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1968 to 1972, General Wheeler oversaw the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, from rapid expansion in the mid-1960s to de-escalation in the early 1970s. Although he had less World War II combat experience than many other generals of his generation, he rose through the ranks as an administrator, effectively managing operations and logistics. (434-1) 

Section 32

Field Marshal Sir John Dill, British Army (1881–1944) — Sir John Dill is the highest-ranking foreign military officer buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Knighted in 1937, he had served in the South African War and World War I, and commanded British forces in Palestine during the interwar years. When the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Dill was sent to Washington, D.C. as the representative for the combined British and American chiefs of staff. President Franklin D. Roosevelt awarded him the Distinguished Service Medal for his work in securing cooperation between British and American forces. Through the influence of his close friend Gen. George C. Marshall (see Section 7, above), Dill was buried at Arlington through a special act of Congress. The monument was unveiled by Marshall and dedicated by President Harry Truman on November 1, 1950. Designed by internationally acclaimed equestrian sculptor Herbert Haseltine, the bronze statue depicts Sir Dill in a British World War II-era military uniform, astride his horse. (Intersection of Roosevelt and Grant Drives) 

Section 33

Gen. Frank E. Petersen Jr., U.S. Marine Corps (1932–2015) — The first African American Marine aviator, Petersen enlisted in the Navy in 1950 and, after completing flight training, accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps. He flew more than 350 combat missions during the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Later, he became the first black Marine to command a fighter squadron, an air group and a major base. Petersen retired from the Marine Corps in 1988 as a three-star lieutenant general — and, in yet another "first," the first black Marine Corps general. (4571) 

Gravestone of General John J. Pershing, one of only two Americans to hold the rank of General of the Armies

Section 34

Gen. Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, U.S. Air Force (1886–1950) — The only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different military services, and the only U.S. Air Force general to hold a five-star rank, Gen. Henry "Hap" Arnold was promoted to General of the Army on December 21, 1944 and became General of the U.S. Air Force on May 7, 1949. Taught to fly by the Wright brothers, Arnold was one of the first military pilots worldwide, and one of the first three rated pilots in the history of the U.S. Air Force. He supervised the expansion of the Army Air Service during World War I and, as a protegee of Gen. Billy Mitchell, continued promoting the development of air power during the interwar years. In World War II, Arnold served as chief of the U.S. Army Air Corps (1938-1941) and commanding general of the U.S. Army Air Forces (1942-1945). Arnold also played a major role in the development of civil aviation, co-founding Pan American Airways in 1927. A brilliant strategic thinker, in 1945 he founded Project RAND, which evolved into one of the world's largest and most influential global policy think tanks. (44-A)

Cpl. Frank W. Buckles, U.S. Army (1901–2011) — The last surviving American World War I veteran died on February 27, 2011, at the age of 110. Buckles, who grew up on a Missouri farm, lied about his age in order to enlist in the Army (the Navy and the Marines had rebuffed him). He served as a clerk and an ambulance driver in England and France, and following the armistice, his unit escorted former prisoners of war back to Germany. During World War II, Buckles himself became a prisoner of war: while working as a civilian in the Philippines, he was captured by the Japanese and spent three years in an internment camp. At Arlington National Cemetery's 2007 Veterans Day ceremony, "the last doughboy" laid a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. (579-A) 

Cpl. Ira Hayes, U.S. Marine Corps (1923–1955) — Hayes was one of the six Marines depicted on the Marine Corps War Memorial, raising the American flag after capturing the Japanese island of Iwo Jima. A Pima American Indian, Hayes enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve in 1942. With Company E, Second Battalion, he fought in the Battle of Iwo Jima (February 19-March 26, 1945), one of the costliest battles of the Pacific theater, with more than 25,000 Americans killed, wounded or missing. Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal documented Hayes and his fellow Marines raising the flag on Mount Suribachi, the island's highest point, on February 23, 1945. The widely published photograph transformed Hayes into an iconic hero. After the war, however, Hayes struggled with his fame, and with post-traumatic stress disorder — as depicted in the 1961 film "The Outsider," which was based on his story. (479-A)

Gen. John J. Pershing, U.S. Army (1860–1948) — General John Joseph Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the U.S. Army: General of the Armies. (George Washington was promoted posthumously to the same rank in 1976.) After graduating from West Point in 1886, Pershing was commissioned as a second lieutenant and served in the Indian Wars of the late 1880s, the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War, and he led the 1916 expedition into Mexico (sometimes called the "Pershing Punitive Expedition") to capture revolutionary leader Pancho Villa. During World War I, Pershing commanded the American Expeditionary Forces in the Meuse-Argonne and other concluding campaigns on the Western Front. Years before his death, he had expressed a wish to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery, and he selected a small hill in a southeastern section of the cemetery as his gravesite. The ground that slopes away from Pershing's site contains the graves of hundreds of men whom he commanded in World War I. (S-19)

Section 35

Col. John Herschel Glenn Jr., U.S. Marine Corps (1921–2016): One of NASA's seven original Project Mercury astronauts, John Glenn was the first American to orbit the earth, circling it three times in his "Friendship 7" capsule on February 20, 1962. A decorated fighter pilot, he flew 59 combat missions during World War II and 90 combat missions in Korea. After the Korean War, he served as a naval test pilot, accomplishing the first transcontinental supersonic flight in 1957. After retiring from the Marine Corps in 1965, Glenn pursued a successful career as a businessman and politician. Elected to the Senate in 1974, he served four consecutive terms as a Democrat from Ohio. In 1988, Glenn returned to space on a nine-day Space Shuttle Discovery mission — becoming, at age 77, the oldest person to go to space. John Glenn died in 2016 at the age of 95. His many honors include six Distinguished Flying Crosses, the Air Medal with 18 Clusters, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. (Grave 1543)

Gen. Paul X. Kelley, U.S. Marine Corps (1928–2019) — As 28th commandant of the Marine Corps, from 1983 to 1987, General Paul X. Kelley “oversaw one of the most intense periods of modernization in Marine Corps history” (as his USMC obituary stated). Commissioned as a second lieutenant after graduating from Villanova University in 1950, “P.X.” Kelley rose through the ranks to become, in 1981, the youngest Marine to wear four stars. During the Vietnam War, he earned the Silver Star, two Bronze Stars and two Legions of Merit for his combat service as a battalion and regimental commander. Yet Kelley’s greatest test came on October 23, 1983 — just four months into his tenure as commandant — when suicide bombers attacked a Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 241 U.S. service members. Kelley later described the Beirut bombing as “the worst emotional trial of my life,” and he sought to repair the Marine Corps’ morale in its aftermath. After retiring from active duty in 1987, General Kelley served two terms as the chair of the American Battle Monuments Commission and held numerous leadership positions in the private sector. (Section 35, Grave 570)

Section 46

*Capt. Bobbie E. Brown, U.S. Army (1903–1971) — This Medal of Honor recipient was wounded 13 times in World War II, and also received eight Purple Hearts, two Silver Stars and the Bronze Star. Born in Georgia, Brown enlisted in the Army to escape a life of rural poverty, serving for more than 20 years before being commissioned as a captain in the 18th Infantry Regiment's "Charlie" Company. In Aachen, Germany, on the night of October 8, 1944, Capt. Brown charged German lines three times, deliberately drawing enemy fire in order to locate gun emplacements. His actions helped U.S. forces to secure Aachen, the first German city captured by the Allies. (1021-17) 

*Maj. Audie L. Murphy, U.S. Army (1924–1971) — World War II Medal of Honor recipient Audie Murphy was one of the most decorated soldiers in U.S. history. Growing up in poverty on a Texas farm, Murphy falsified his birth certificate in order to enlist in the Army at age 17, a year before he was eligible. As a soldier of the 15th Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, he fought in North Africa, Italy and France. He received every military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army, as well as French and Belgian awards for heroism. He also received the Medal of Honor after single-handedly holding off an entire company of Germans for an hour at the Colmar Pocket in France in January 1945, then leading a successful counterattack while wounded and out of ammunition. Murphy returned home to a hero's welcome, and actor James Cagney convinced him to pursue a career in Hollywood. Murphy acted in more than 40 films, including "The Red Badge of Courage" (1951), "Gunsmoke" (1953) and "To Hell and Back" (1955, based on Murphy's own memoir of his war experiences). He tragically died in a plane crash in 1971. (366-11)

Section 48

Staff Sgt. William R. Spates Jr., U.S. Army (1939–1965) — Staff Sgt. Spates, a first relief commander at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, was the first Tomb Guard to be killed in action. He enlisted in the Army in 1957 and was assigned to 1st Battalion (Reinforced), 3rd Infantry Regiment (the "Old Guard") in 1963. Spates requested assignment in Vietnam, however, and was detailed to the 23rd Vietnamese Ranger Battalion in Pleiku, South Vietnam. On October 25, 1965, a mortar strike killed the 26-year-old soldier as he was defending the base against an enemy attack. He was laid to rest near the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, as he had requested. (432) 

Section 51

Cpl. Rene A. Gagnon, U.S. Marine Corps (1925–1979) —  Cpl. Rene Gagnon was once believed to be one of the six Marines depicted in Associate Press photographer Joe Rosenthal's iconic photograph, "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima," which inspired the Marine Corps War Memorial. Based on digital photography research, the Marine Corps now believes that he was misidentified, and that the individual believed to be Gagnon was, in fact, Pfc. Harold "Pie" Keller. Even if he was not in the photograph, however, Gagnon did participate in raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in February 1945. Gagnon was drafted in 1943 and fought on Iwo Jima with E Company, 2nd Battalion. (543)

Section 55

Maj. Kurt Chew-Een Lee, U.S. Marine Corps (1926–2014) — The first Asian American officer in the Marine Corps, Kurt Chew-Een Lee was born in San Francisco to Chinese immigrants. He enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1944 and received his commission in 1946. During the first few months of the Korean War, Lee, then a first lieutenant, commanded a machine gun platoon which advanced deep into northeastern Korea. On the night of November 2, 1950, he trekked into the mountains, in blizzard conditions, on a solo reconnaissance mission. Encountering Chinese troops, he began yelling in Mandarin to confuse them and to expose their position. As a result of his actions, his unit was able to take a Chinese base, and he received the Navy Cross for extraordinary heroism. Lee also earned a Silver Star for his actions in the famous Battle of Chosin Reservoir, in which he was severely wounded. Lee subsequently served in the Vietnam War as an intelligence officer, and he retired from the Marines in 1968 at the rank of major. Kurt Chew-Een Lee’s record of service not only honored his country, but also demolished anti-Asian stereotypes: “I wanted to dispel the notion about the Chinese being meek, bland and obsequious,” he told the Los Angeles Times in 2010.  (4970)

Gravestone of Admiral Grace Hopper, a pioneer in computing

Section 59

Rear Adm. Grace Hopper, U.S. Navy (1906–1992) — Computer science pioneer Grace Hopper earned her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934 and joined the U.S. Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve) in 1943; she was commissioned as a lieutenant junior grade. Assigned to the Bureau of Ships Computation Project at Harvard University, Hopper worked on Mark I, the first large-scale automatic calculator (a precursor of the computer). In 1949, she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, where she helped to develop the UNIVAC I, the first general-purpose electronic computer. Hopper retired from the Naval Reserve in late 1966, but was recalled to active duty less than a year later, in August 1967. From 1967 to 1977, she directed the Navy Programming Languages Group in the Navy's Office of Information System Planning. When Rear Adm. Hopper retired from the Navy in 1986 at the age of 79, she was the oldest commissioned naval officer on active duty. (973)

Section 60

Col. Paul L. Bates, U.S. Army (1908–1995) — During World War II, Bates (a white officer) commanded the predominantly African American 761st Tank Battalion, the first black tank battalion to enter combat in World War II. The 761st fought for 183 straight days in France and Germany, eventually receiving (in 1978) a Presidential Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism in action. Col. Bates was the first member of the battalion to be wounded in combat — but he is better known for declining to court-martial 1st Lt. Jackie Robinson, a member of the 761st, after he refused to move to the rear of a segregated Army bus. (6101)

Lt. Kara Spears Hultgreen, U.S. Navy (1965–1994) — Lt. Hultgreen was the first woman to serve as a carrier-based Navy fighter pilot, and the first woman to qualify as an F-14 combat pilot. She died on October 25, 1994 when her F-14 Tomcat crashed into the Pacific Ocean while making a final approach to the carrier USS Abraham Lincoln. (7710)

Brig. Gen. Hazel W. Johnson-Brown, U.S. Army (1927–2011) — The first African American woman general in the U.S. Army, Johnson-Brown became chief of the Army Nurse Corps, and received a promotion to brigadier general, in 1979. She joined the Army as a nurse in 1955, and served as a staff nurse in Japan and chief nurse in South Korea. From 1976 to 1978, she directed the Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing. (9836)

Gen. Colin L. Powell, U.S. Army (1937–2021) — General Colin Powell, a Vietnam veteran, was the first African American to hold three of the U.S. government’s highest positions: national security advisor (1987-1989), chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989-1993), and secretary of state (2001-2005). The son of Jamaican immigrants, Powell grew up in the South Bronx and enrolled in Army ROTC during college; he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1958. By 1989, he had risen to the rank of four-star general. His many awards and decorations include two Presidential Medals of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. (11917)

Section 65

Maj. Gen. Jeanne M. Holm, U.S. Air Force (1921–2010): The first woman to serve as a major general in the U.S. armed forces, Maj. Gen. Holm had a long and distinguished career in the Air Force. She enlisted in the Army in 1942, soon after the establishment of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC). She transferred to the Air Force in 1949 and was appointed director of Women in the Air Force (WAF) in 1965. During her tenure as director, policies affecting women were updated, WAF strength more than doubled and job and assignment opportunities greatly expanded. Her awards include the Distinguished Service Medal and the Legion of Merit. (245) 

Section 66

Vice Adm. Samuel Lee Gravely Jr., U.S. Navy (1922–2004) — The first African American to rise to the rank of vice admiral, the first to command a warship and the first to command a U.S. fleet, Vice Adm. Samuel Lee Gravely Jr. served in the Navy for nearly 40 years, from 1942 to 1980. During the Vietnam War, when he took command of the destroyer escort USS Falgout, he became the first black officer to command a combat ship. From 1976 to 1978, he commanded the Hawaii-based Third Fleet, and then directed the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) until his retirement. (7417) 

* denotes Medal of Honor recipient
** denotes two Medals of Honor